Tuesday, August 30, 2022

Siouan Language Roots-Dhegihan by Zina Abbott


If the above topic sounds like a "nerd alert," relax. Think family history of a few of the Native American tribes who live along the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers.

1852 Omaha delegation to Washington D.C.

When I learn of a tribe who lived in the general region where I have set one of my stories, I always like to find out a little bit of their history. What drove me to learn more about something that sounds complicated is that in my latest book, released today, a big part of the setting is in Omaha, Nebraska. The city, Omaha, is named after the Omaha tribe. All right, so who are the Omaha tribe, where did they come from, and where were they in 1873, the year my story takes place?

Lower Ohio River Valley from 1653 Map

One of the first things I learned were that the Omaha people were one of five related tribes, all who share a language group called Siouan. (Yes, that is as in Sioux. They are also a Siouan tribe, one I might feature in a future blog post.) Technically, these tribes are known as the Dhegiha-Siouan division of the Hopewell cultures of the lower Ohio Valley. That is roughly along the lower Ohio River region, the part that is closer to the Mississippi River. At one time, they lived together as one tribe. However, as they grew, in order to hunt and gather enough food to feed their families, bands or groups began breaking off and became separate tirbes.

As I began to research the roots of the Omaha tribe, I learned I already wrote about, and put together several blog posts on another  tribe that belongs to this same group, the Kaw, or Kansa, tribe, which you may find HERE, HERE, HERE, HERE, and HERE.

The pink surrounding Lake Michigan show Siouan language region

The other three tribes which belong to this same language group are the Osage (which were closely tied with the Kaw, often through frequent intermarriage), the Quapaw, and the Ponca. The Ponca was originally a band of the Omaha. In about the 1700s, it broke off and established itself as a separate tribe.

These five tribes are all were part of what linguists call the Western Siouan language group, which is closely realted to the Catawban language group, often called the Eastern Siouan language group.

At one time, all five of these tribes lived together in what is known as the Eastern Woodlands part of North America. However, several centuries ago, they began to be pushed west by tribes who also were pushed west due to European arrival on the East coast. It is estimated that in their earlier history, they might have lived in what today are the states of North Carolina, Virginia, and Ohio. From there, these five tribes moved down the Mississippi River. A few of them moved up the Missouri River.

Here is where they ended up in the 1800s.

Arkansas map showing land treaties with Quapaws

Quapaw Robe

The Quapaw traveled with the Omaha down the Mississippi River. However, they continued past the mouth of the Missouri River and settled near the confluence of the Arkansas and Mississippi Rivers. Among the other tribes in this language group, they became known as the “Downriver People.”

The Kaws and Osages traveled up the Missouri River. The Kaw settled near the mouth of the Kansas River, which was named for the tribe. Originally, it held territory on both sides of the Missouri River until persuaded through treaty to give up their territory east of the river and settle only on the west. They became known as the “People of the South Wind,” due to their position in tribal war ceremonies.

Osage Chief Black Dog by George Catlin

The Osage tribe settled to the south of the Kaws. The Osage tribe became known as the “people of the middle waters.”

The Kaws were originally assigned to a reservation at Council Grove along the Santa Fe Trail before the Kansas –Nebraska Act of 1854 opened up land in those two territories for white settlement. As the tribe weakened due to disease, like their neighboring tribe, the Osages, they were moved to reservations in Indian Territory, now part of Oklahoma.

As for the Omaha tribe, they continued north up the Missouri River, which resulted in them becoming known as the “Upstream People,” or “going against the current.” They held a great deal of territory until treaties forced upon them whittled it down to what it is today.

Chief Standing Bear - Ponca

The Ponca tribe, formerly a band of the Omaha, broke off and moved to the territory northwest of Omaha territory. They derived their name from “Those Who Lead.” The tribe had a time of it when the United States decided to remove it from its lands in Nebraska. At first, they put them on the same reservation with the Sioux, which caused continual conflict, since they considered each other enemies. When told they must go to Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma, they refused, referring to an earlier 1851 Fort Laramie treaty. The government forced them to move, which resulted in multiple deaths due to malaria, food shortages, and excessive heat. Later, about half of the tribe returned to their ancestral lands in Nebraska.

Each tribe has an extensive and interesting history worthy of several book-length works. This overview was designed as an short “family history” summary to show how these five tribes had common roots—both in ancestral lands and language similarities.

Omaha by George Catlin

For my book, Bee Sting Cake by Brunhilde, I wrote two chapters about the Omaha tribe and their reservation in Northeastern Nebraska. At the eleventh hour—as in, I delayed getting my manuscript to my editor for a day—I took them out. I enjoyed researching and writing them, but felt they did not add to the main theme of the story. Some readers might find them interesting. Most editors would have called them an “info dump.” I might end up sharing them in a blog post—an “ended up on the cutting room floor” feature. Either way, I enjoyed learning more about the Omaha tribe, their history, and the challenges they faced in the mid and late 1800s.

Bee Sting Cake by Brunhilde was released today and is now available. It is in ebook format and available on Kindle Unlimited. I plan to have the paperback version available soon.

You may find the book description and purchase options by CLICKING HERE.

Friday, August 26, 2022

The Biggest Rattlesnake Roundup in the World by Bea Tifton

 Snakes. Not even Indiana Jones could brave them. But in Sweetwater, Texas, home of the largest Rattlesnake Roundup in the world, hundreds of people actually seek out rattlesnakes.  The roundup began in 1958 when farmers and ranchers worked together to try to eliminate the western diamond rattlesnakes because the snakes were reportedly biting livestock and pets. The local police and sheriff departments were getting so many calls about problems with the rattlesnakes that they were finding it difficult to perform any of their other responsibilities.  In 1959, the local Jaycees organization took possession of the event and still put on the roundup every year.

The Sweetwater Rattlesnake Roundup has become a huge event with an annual festival that includes a cook-off, a dance, a gun, coin and knife show, concessions stands, bus tours, guided hunts, vendor booths, a parade, and a carnival. For the cook-off, not only are brisket, ribs, chicken, and beans prepared by cooks from around the state, but of course, it includes rattlesnake. The concessions stand offers southern fried rattlesnake, French fries, drinks, corn, and snacks. For the guided hunts, participants “need the proper permits (a hunting license and a non-game stamp) and courage. “  The tours are for “People who wish to view and photograph the rattlesnake in its natural habitat. " (http://www.rattlesnakeroundup.net/20171.html)

Each year a panel appoints a “Miss Snake Charmer,” who is responsible for attending community events, interacting with the local residents, presiding over the following year’s contest, and climbing into a pit of poisonous snakes, decapitating and skinning them.

In 2016, the Sweetwater Chamber of Commerce reported that the roundup brought 8.4 million dollars to the local economy. The money that is raised by the Jaycees  used to host Thanksgiving and Christmas dinners, hold toy drives, and provide college scholarships for people living in that community. 

The Rattlesnake Roundup is not without its detractors. Opponents argue that there is a significant damage to the environment because of the use of gasoline during the hunt and animal rights groups are vehemently opposed to what they term as the slaughter of thousand of rattlesnakes each year.  Some even claim that the “Threat to man and cattle is greatly exaggerated.” (https://islandpress.org/blog/sweetwater-jaycees-worlds-largest-rattlesnake-roundup) Some researchers are preparing to propose a state law that bans killing snakes in these rattlesnake roundups. They point to examples of some no-kill roundups that still bring tourist dollars and provide excitement. 

Rob  McCann of the Jaycees said that "Rattlesnakes are a way of life here. We are not trying to eradicate rattlesnakes-we teach people to live around them. Don't judge us because you don't have rattlesnakes where your kids play."

Despite the controversies, the Jaycees plan to continue organizing the Sweetwater Rattlesnake Roundup for years to come.

Wednesday, August 24, 2022

A TALE OF DANIEL BOONE by Marisa Masterson

 I came across a true story recently that intrigued me. A tale from early in the settlement of the United States by whites.

It comes from the time when settlers poured into what is now Tenessee and Kentucky. A period when the unknown West truly made up the majority of the United States, and it was illegal for those same whites to be in that area.

England's law forbidding settlement in what was Cherokee and Shawnee territory didn't stop Daniel Boone. Along with others, he led his family into Kentucky and set up a small fort named Boonesborough. Only, the native people didn't take kindly to having their treaty with England broken.

Painting by C. Wimar
The story goes that fourteen-year-old Jemima Boone and two friends left the fort one day. They took the group's only canoe and floated down the river. One account says that they wanted to pick grapes.

Regardless of their reasons, a raiding party watched from the trees on the opposite side of the river. The men jumped into the river while the girls paddled frantically. It was useless. The natives snatched the three screaming girls.

Remember, this was Daniel Boone's girl. She knew her father would come after her. He would follow her trail, so she determined to leave him a trail to follow.

She and the other two bent branches, broke twigs, and dropped both berries and leaves when their captors led them through the forest. The long dresses worn by the girls slowed the raiding party's escape. One of the men cut off the garments at the knee. I wonder if that left the girls feeling vulnerable or hopeful, perhaps thinking they could run better and possibly get away from this band of Cherokee-Shawnee.

The trail marked by the girls disappeared once the natives took them into a stand of river cane. But Daniel Boone took a chance on a buffalo trail he knew in that area. Following it, he found the camp and attacked. 

In the end, two natives were killed and the girls were rescued. Interestingly, those three girls' future husbands all took part in their rescue that day.

The story was so popular on the frontier that James Fennimore Cooper included it in his book The Last of the Mohicans. 

To read more, check out two of my sources for this frontier tale--



On sale now for only 99¢!

Monday, August 22, 2022

A Couple Who Left Their Mark

 Post by Doris McCraw aka Angela Raines

Photo property of the Author

In the early days of Colorado Springs William S. and Helen (Hunt) Jackson were quite the couple. William, as the majority owner of the El Paso County Bank, treasurer of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad, and later the receiver of the same company when it went into bankruptcy, was a major influence on the financial health and confidence in Colorado Springs. Helen (Hunt) was already an established author when she arrived in Colorado Springs. Her writings about the area were responsible for the view many Easterners and those from Europe had of the region.

How did these two come to achieve this status? Perhaps it will help to have a bit of background on the two individually.

William Sharpless Jackson

Born in Pennsylvania to Caleb S Jackson and Mary Ann Gause Jackson. His parents were involved in the Underground Railway, their home being a stop on that historical line, in Kennett Square, Chester County, Pennsylvania. His parents were also Quakers, the faith that William Jackson Palmer, one of the founders of Colorado Springs, also belonged to.

Helen was born Helen Marie Fiske on October 18, 1830, in Amherst Massachusetts. Her father Nathan Fiske was a teacher at Amherst College. Her mother Deborah Waterman Venal Fiske, taught Helen and her younger sister Anne at home whenever possible. There were two other children born to the Fiskes. Both were boys and died in infancy. Both of Helen's parents wrote. Her father wrote adult books and her mother wrote children's stories.

Helen came to Colorado in 1873 at the request of her doctor. She had been having fevers and sore throats. It was thought that the climate in Colorado would help Helen heal. She first arrived in Denver but did not like the town. It was suggested that she try Colorado Springs which was a few miles south of Denver.

Her doctor had said she needed to come to a warm, dry climate. When she arrived in Colorado Springs in the late fall it was snowing, overcast, and cold. She had thought that it might be best to go back to the east coast. To her Colorado Springs was raw, new, and not very welcoming. Helen felt the mountains were foreboding and the plains flat and ugly.

Helen H Jackson
from Wikipedia

Helen agreed to give Colorado one month. During that time, the sun came out again and Helen had a chance to see so many wonderful things. She soon fell in love with the area and over time traveled over a lot of Colorado. She wrote about what she saw and many of her essays were published in magazines back East. These essays described Colorado so well that people wanted to see what she wrote about.

While in Colorado Springs Helen met many people and one was William Sharpless Jackson. He worked for the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad and also was involved in banking. The two spent time traveling around the area and both loved the mountains and outdoors.

In October of 1875, Helen and William were married. This was Williams's first marriage and Helen's second. Helen was eight years older, but that did not seem to make any difference to William, or as Helen called him Will.

Williams's work kept him traveling a great deal; sometimes Helen would accompany him and sometimes she would stay in the home he had bought for them or travel on her own.

To Helen, Cheyenne mountain was the most beautiful mountain in the world. She and Will had spent much time around the mountain. Their favorite spot to 'camp' was an area in South Cheyenne canyon where it overlooked the city and the stream that flowed through the canyon.

Helen continued to write and travel. Sometimes she traveled without William and sometimes with him. Still, she kept writing her stories, essays, and poems. She would also return to the east coast where her sister Ann and family lived.

Up until Helen's death in 1885, this couple followed their own rules, and in the process did much that benefitted many. They both left a lasting legacy.

Doris McCraw

Tuesday, August 16, 2022

"The One-Horse Open Sleigh" - The Origin of "Jingle Bells" by Jo-Ann Roberts


Perhaps no single piece of popular music is more universally recognized during the Christmas holiday season than "Jingle Bells", the jaunty tune about the joys of dashing through snow-covered fields while riding in a one-horse open sleigh.
In my current Christmas WIP (shh, I can't say much about it...yet!), the FMC is encouraging her children to practice the song to divert their attention. Further along in the story, the MMC sings it to the FMC when he takes her on a sleigh ride.
By adding accurate historical tidbits to my books, it gives a layer of richness and authenticity to the stories. Because the story's time frame is between Thanksgiving and Christmas, I researched holiday songs and carols. Much to my delight, I discovered that "The One-Horse Open Sleigh" (a.k.a. 'Jingle Bells") was composed in 1850, some twenty-one years before my story takes place.

Although historians are still debating the when, where, and why of the song's composition, it is accepted the tune was written at the Simpson Tavern in Medford, Massachusetts in 1850 by James Lord Pierpont. A witness, Mrs. Otis Waterman, verified the location of the song's composition. While living in Savannah, Pierpont copyrighted "Jingle Bells." Many Savannah historians believe that Pierpont penned the song about sleigh rides in Medford while in Georgia experiencing his first snowless winter as an ode to his Massachusetts snowy upbringing.

The debate between Savannah and Medford began in 1985 when Savannah erected a historical marker across from the Unitarian Church Pierpont called home.
 A few years later the mayor of Medford sent a letter to the mayor of Savannah stating the song was composed in Medford in 1850. Yet, Savannahians contends that because the song was copyrighted in 1857 while Pierpont in their city, they proclaim Savannah as the home of "Jingle Bells".

Regardless of precisely where and when "Jingle Bells" might have been written, it was clear the tune was not intended as a Christmas song. Some local history narratives claim the song was inspired by Medford's popular sleigh races during the 19th century. Though the song only mentions snow--and not Christmas or December--many believe Pierpont wrote the song for a Thanksgiving program at his father's Sunday school. The song proved so popular the children were asked to sing the song again at Christmastime and has been tied to the latter holiday ever since.  

This version of the story has been disputed by some, however, who believe "Jingle Bells" would have been too racy for a Sunday school in the 1850s.

"The references to courting would not have been allowed in a Sunday school program of that time, such as 'Go it while you're young'".

Instead, it was just a sleighing song. Fast sleighs and pretty girls. Some things never change.


The song became so popular in the 1860s and 1870s it was featured in a variety of parlor songs and college anthologies in the 1880s. It was first record in 1889 on an Edison cylinder. This recording, believed to be the first Christmas record is lost, but an 1898 recording also from Edison Records survives.

The two first stanzas and chorus of the original 1857 lyrics differed slightly from those known today. It is unknown who replaced the words with those of the modern version. Underlined lyrics are the removed lyrics from the original version. Bold lyrics are the new lyrics in the current version.

Dashing thro' the snow,
In a one-horse open sleigh,
O'er the hills (fields) we go,
Laughing all the way.
Bells on bob tail ring,
Making spirits bright,
Oh, what sport (What fun it is) to ride and sing
A sleighing song tonight.

|: chorus :|
Jingle bells, jingle bells,
Jingle all the way;
Oh! what joy (fun) it is to ride
In a one-horse open sleigh.

A day or two ago
I tho't I'd take a ride
And soon Miss Fannie Bright
Was seated by my side.
The horse was lean and lank
Misfortune seemed his lot
He got into a drifted bank
And we— (then) we got upsot.

Click Here

Some people come into your life as lessons…
Unexpected fatherhood finds former bank detective, Lucas Harmon desperate for a woman to care for his orphaned nieces. A governess…perhaps? A housekeeper…maybe? A wife…definitely not! Six years ago, the wealthy Chicago socialite he planned to wed, publicly spurned his affections. Despite his determination to guard his feelings, a meddling matchmaking conductor and an encounter with a past acquaintance threatens to upend his heart.
…some come as blessings
Anxious to leave behind the whispers and stares of two jilted love affairs, Boston socialite, Ainsley MacKenzie hopes for solitude on her way to New Hope, Kansas. But when the kindly conductor enlists her help to care for two orphaned girls, she couldn’t say no. Little did she know their uncle and guardian was the one man she couldn’t forget… Lucas Harmon. Taking a chance, Ainsley offers Lucas an unusual (some might say, scandalous!) arrangement. She’ll look after the children, read them stories and cook their meals until Christmas, giving Lucas time to find a permanent replacement. Yet, the longer she cares for the family the more she longs to be part of it—whatever the risk to her heart.


Friday, August 12, 2022


 By Caroline Clemmons

Several years ago, we lived in a rural area where grass fires were all around us. Tens of thousands of acres of ranch land west of us burned. Several times, the fires jumped highways and river. In fact, the fire came only a fourth-mile from our home. Of course, we were afraid, and planned what we would take with us if we had to evacuate quickly. My husband even created a fire brake around our home. 

One fire started when someone burned trash, ignoring a burn ban. Sparks ignited the dry grass and spread rapidly. Volunteer firemen could only try to protect homes, but several were lost. Firemen were able to save numerous horses from a large barn.

A frightening sight!

As frightened as we were a few years ago, think how terrifying a grass fire must have been for pioneers and early settlers. No fire trucks, no fire hydrants, no large water supplies, no planes to drop water or chemicals on the fire. Possibly, there were no close neighbors to join in the battle. I can't imagine how horrible that must have been. 

In my latest release, GENTRY AND THE MAIL ORDER BRIDE, Gentry and his ranch hands join with others from across the county to battle a fire started by lightning. In a release several years ago, BRAZOS BRIDE, a rancher and his ranch hands battled a fire started by the villain.

In this latest book, Gentry McRae and others battled the blaze with shovels and blankets. Each wore a bandana covering his mouth and nose as protection from the smoke. There was no protection for their eyes. Imagine how their eyes must have burned. Some used blankets or pieces of clothing to beat at the flames while others used shovels to toss dirt on the fire. 

I found it interesting to learn that Native American peoples used fire as a tool to control the ecosystem. In this way they maintained wildlife habitats that sustained their cultures and economies. Burning practices managed, protected, and related to their surroundings. 

According to sociologist Kari Norgaard, "Indigenous peoples have long set low-intensity fires to manage eco-cultural resources and reduce the buildup of fuels--flammable trees, grasses and brush--that cause larger, hotter, and more dangerous fires, like the ones that have burned across the West in recent years. Before fire suppression, forests in the West experienced a mix of low- to high-severity fires for millennia. Large, high-severity fires played an important role, yet their spread was limited by low-severity fires set by indigenous peoples."

Then, new people in the West interfered, with the very best of intentions. For instance, fire suppression was mandated by the first session of the California Legislature in 1850. Later, they made it illegal to use these low-intensity fires to manage ecosystems. Oops, "progress" struck out again.

The largest fire about which I read was the Montana-Idaho fire which destroyed over three million acres. This happened in the last quarter of the 19th century.

I've heard of starting a fire to burn a strip of land in hope of stopping the larger fire when it arrived. I don't know how long this has been a practice. If you were isolated, how could one family manage this kind of maneuver? If you lived on the great plains, you would probably not know about such things. You'd be working hard to build your farm or ranch into a satisfactory home, perhaps even a dynasty you plan to hand down to your descendants. A grass fire could destroy everything but the land.

Cattle trapped by a fence

The same vulnerability was/is true with those who lived in the mountains. A forest fire would be a nightmare. A beautiful woodland setting could be reduced to ashes with all wildlife either dead or moved out of the area. 

What would you do--load the wagon and try to outrun the fire or try to suppress it? I'm certain I would have loaded what I could into a wagon and tried to outrun the blaze. 

, Book 1, Texas Hill Country Mail Order Brides, is available at Amazon in e-book and print and is enrolled in Kindle Unlimited. Here's the link: 


Monday, August 8, 2022


 DID PIONEERS WEAR UNDERWEAR? Fashion in the Old West by Cora Leland

    The short answer is yes. Both women and men wore underwear, though on a wagon train, not pajamas. Throughout the nineteenth century, women dressed in layers: the minimum would have been a chemise (a kind of slip), a short or longer corset, a corset cover, petticoats and an overskirt.
    In the West, this was reduced, for women in the rural areas, to chemise, petticoats and overdress, and sometimes a corset;  but in 'civilization,' it was a different matter altogether. In the photo, it's hard to say where the models lived.

    People who dressed 'fashionably' followed a wild pace of changes as to what constituted the latest look.

The pointed bodice (with guns)
Also notice the tight sleeves.  

Toward the close of the 1880's sleeves became looser.

Quite a bit more comfortable!

    Various designs of a well-dressed woman's skirts were a cutaway skirt, a lifted top skirt (swooped skirt) and several others. Formal dresses could have more revealing necklines, but the rule for most women was a high, tight collar; as the century progressed, collars became still higher.

A cutaway skirt

Swooped skirts

Alas, the bustle's importance emerged, then disappeared throughout the 1800's.  Here is one medium-sized bustle (1880) for those times, when bustles were much smaller.  Also, please notice her hairstyle: a gentle upswept style. 

A bustle but a softer hair style (1880)

    Although women were still expected to have very long hair, it was seldom worn down. When it was it was for art or illustrations.  Girls were taught to wear their hair up when they were no older than eleven.  The following hairstyles don't look as easy-going as the one with the bustle. Bangs were popular; late in the 1800's bangs were parted in the middle.

    Also during the 1800's, hats were important.

Even a riding habit (left) had a matching hat (and the ladies on each side wore their hair down)

Toward the end of the century, the tall felt hat appeared for women.

    But for pioneer women and women settlers and on wagon trains, hats were much simpler, if their lives dictated that:  bonnets were pragmatic, for shading eyes and face from the blistering sun.  Their frames were constructed from wood or wire.

    And here we've come to the topic of dust. 

Lots of dust in this logging town

    A young woman who journeyed across the country cried out, as probably many others did as they trekked and rode in wagons on tracks that were ankle-deep in dust, "Oh, the dust, the dust! ... it was knee-deep in places. We came twenty miles without stopping.. the boys' faces were covered with all the dust...and I saw just the eyes, nose and mouth through the dust...How glad we all are to have clear cold water to wash away the dust."

    One woman cried when she reached the end of her ten-day trip that she never enjoyed a bath so much as she did then. 
    Others complained that in this dusty world, their sun bonnets were useless for keeping them safe. As happy as the traveler was about the clear cold water, authorities seem to be unanimous that bathing and even hand-washing didn't become accepted until the turn of the century.  

    From the Sun King Louis XIV to a San Francisco card-sharp, bathing was avoided for several reasons, including the ideas that bathing opened the skin to disease and underclothes made the body hygienic by absorbing perspiration and dirt.  (Men often wore long underwear.) 

    People were, when they could afford it, careful of their outer garments: shirts, for example, which had high, tight collars among the fashionable.  For everyone, body odor was considered perfectly normal.

    Writing about cleanliness among plains residents, one authority stated that homesteaders grew so poor that they had one set of clothes at a time and simply never changed them until they'd become so ragged that the garments fell to pieces.  

    This expert claimed that deciding to come West was dangerous for one's health: no sewers, outhouses (until laws passed by towns) tipped to drain into the streets, mud streets with horses, no refrigeration and a poor, grease-laden diet --  and more.  He did mention that Omaha, Nebraska, though no different from other places, was the healthiest city in the US.

    Regarding soap:  cowboys had been exposed to Mexican soap, which was made from a part of the yucca.  That soap was gentle and sweet-smelling.  Settlers, however, made soap and candles from animal fat, which was harsh and strong of scent.

                                        Please notice the mud!

Deadwood, Dakota Territory, 1800's

    In any case, it's difficult not to be sympathetic when people lived in these conditions.

    As you'd think, people going across country in wagon trains simply had no place to store more than three pieces of clothing for each person.  They carried food and all supplies they'd need for months, some water, any furniture or possessions they'd need for setting up their new lives.

  Even in those days, then, ladies sewed the family's clothes, for some, even their husband's shirts, and often they had to do without sewing machines. Some fabrics were imported from India, like cottons, so pioneers were accustomed to wear simpler fabrics. A popular one was linsey-woolsey. Laura Ingalls Wilder wrote in detail about a dress her heroine made of several yards cashmere, tucked and decorated.

    Native Americans (known in those days simply as 'Indians') dressed in clothes hand-designed and sewed by women of the particular tribe they were born to and each traibe's designs varied. 

     Below is one drawing (by the Oglala holy man Black Road in 1880) titled 'Woman in a Red Wool Dress with Tepee."  Next is a contemporary set of tribal 'dolls' showing the traditional clothes of the artist's tribe, including a parfleche (buffalo hide bag) and baby carrier.

Native American 'dolls' wearing traditional clothes