Monday, September 16, 2013


By Guest Journalist, Author, and Historian, Kirsten Lynn
First posted on July 8, 2012, at

Sweet blazin’ sun, Cookie’s drivin’ this wagon like a runaway stagecoach! He started slappin’ reins and here we are in Rawlins, Wyoming!

Y’all might notice we’re not followin’ a trail for a time as we keep our wagons travelin’  through Wyomin’. For a time we’re gonna look at the bad and the ugly from the Cowboy State’s history, so hang on folks cause this trail is about to get rough!

And speakin’ of rough and ugly let me introduce y’all to Big Nose George…

"Big Nose" George Parrot
We don’t know much about George Parrot other than he was a cattle rustler, and then joined a gang. Known for his large nose and therefore called Big Nose George, he was a member of a gang of road agents and horse thieves. The leader of the gang was a man named Sim Jan, and they were active in the Powder River country, robbing pay wagons and stagecoaches. Other gang members included: Frank McKinney, Joe Manuse, Jack Campbell, John Wells, Tom Reed, Frank Tole, and “Dutch Charley” Burress.

After a series of successful robberies, the gang decided to expand their operation to robbing trains. On August 16, 1878, they planned to rob a Union Pacific train near Medicine Bow by manipulating the tracks so the train would derail. However, as the outlaws waited in the brush for the train, a section crew from the railroad came along and discovered the tampered rail.

Frank McKinney wanted to shoot the rail crew, but Big Nose George and Frank Tole objected, saying they hadn’t come to kill.  As the crewmen repaired the track, a railroad foreman rode ahead to stop the approaching train and inform the law that the rail had been tampered with. Forced to abort the robbery, the outlaws watched helplessly as the track was repaired. After the workers left, the gang rode off.

A posse was hastily formed and rode out to apprehend the would-be train robbers. Two lawmen tracked the gang to Rattlesnake Canyon in Elk Mountain. The outlaws shot and killed both lawmen. Wanted now for attempted robbery and the murder of two lawmen, the outlaws went their separate ways.

One of the victims killed that day was Robert Widdowfield. Widdowfield was born in County Durham, England, the son of a miner. In 1870, when Widdowfield was twenty-one, the family moved to America and settled in Wyoming where Robert became a deputy sheriff in Carbon County. On August, 19, 1878, he became Wyoming’s first officer to be killed in the line of duty.

The Union Pacific Railroad doubled their efforts in tracking the gang members and county authorities offered a $10,000 reward for their capture. Frank Tole was killed the next month while attempting to rob the Black Hills Stage line.

“Dutch Charley” was apprehended in 1879. However, when the westbound train transporting the outlaw to Rawlins for trial passed Carbon it was stopped by a mob.  “Dutch Charley” was forcibly taken from the train and hanged from a telegraph pole, with one of the widows kicking the barrel out from under “Dutch Charley” and ending his career.

Two years later in Miles City, Montana, Big Nose George, in a drunken stupor, bragged about killing two Wyoming lawmen.  A telegraph was sent to Rawlins, and in July, 1880, Sheriff James Rankin of Carbon County went to Montana to collect his prisoner and bring George back to Wyoming.  A second time, the train bringing a gang member back was stopped in Carbon by the same mob that lynched “Dutch Charley.”  Big Nose was hauled off the train and prepared for hanging. But the outlaw confessed and pleaded for his life, promising to tell all he knew if they let him live. The vigilantes cut him down and he was allowed to continue the journey to Rawlins to stand trial.

When he arrived in Rawlins, he recanted his confession after he was told if he pleaded guilty there would be no trial if his plea was accepted and he would face a mandatory death sentence.  His trial began in November of 1880, and he again changed his plea to guilty. The plea was accepted and on December 15, 1880, he was sentenced to hang on April 2, 1881.

While Big Nose was in jail, he stated Frank McKinney claimed to be Frank James, which led to some speculation that Frank McKinney and the gang’s leader, Sim Jan, were Frank and Jesse James. The only gang members ever caught were:  Frank Tole, “Dutch Charley,” and Big Nose George.  McKinney, Jan and the rest of the gang disappeared.

Front Street in Rawlins, Wyoming

George attempted to escape on March 22, 1880. Parrot managed to file the rivets of the heavy shackles on his ankles, using a pocket knife and a piece of sandstone. After removing his shackles, he hid until jailor Robert Rankin (brother of Sheriff James Rankin) entered the area.  Big Nose struck Robert Rankin with the shackles, fracturing his skull, but Rankin fought back and called out to his wife, Rosa.  Rosa grabbed a pistol and forced Big Nose back into his cell.

News of the attempted escape spread through Rawlins, and a mob descended on the jail determined to see Big Nose hang. They dragged Big Nose George from the jail to a telegraph pole on what is now Front Street. A crowd of about 200 people gathered.  The first effort using a Kerosine barrel was unsuccessful. On the second attempt, Big Nose was made to ascend a ladder leaning against a telegraph pole. When the ladder was pulled out from under him, Big Nose managed to get his hands free and clung to the pole begging for someone to have mercy and shoot him. No one did. Tired, Big Nose let go and strangled to death.

The body was left hanging for hours until the undertaker cut it down. With no family to claim the body, Doctors Thomas Maghee and John Osborne took possession of it. The doctors wanted to study the outlaw’s brain for the purpose of determining whether there were any visible criminal abnormalities.  The skull cap was removed and given to Lillian Heath (later Lillian Nelson), a fifteen-year-old apprentice of Dr. Maghee. Heath, who became the first woman doctor in Wyoming, used the skull cap as an ashtray, pencil holder and doorstop until her death.  Though Dr. Maghee acted within the medical ethics of the time, Dr. Osborne’s activities became bizarre.

Dr. John Osborne

Osborne first molded a death mask of George’s face using plaster of paris. The mask was without ears because while George struggled at the end of the rope his ears were torn off.

Next, Osborne removed the skin from the dead man’s thighs and chest, which he shipped to a tannery in Denver with a set of grotesque instructions. The tannery was to use the skin, including the nipples, to make him a pair of shoes and a medicine bag. When Dr. Osborne received the shoes, he was disappointed to find they didn’t include the nipples, but proudly wore them despite his instructions not being followed.

Osborne's Big Nose Shoes

The rest of Big Nose George’s dismembered body was kept in a whiskey barrel filled with a salt solution for about a year as Osborne continued his dissection and experiments. Finally, the whiskey barrel was buried by Osborne’s office in Rawlins.

Despite this odd behavior, Osborne was elected as Wyoming’s first Democratic governor, in 1892. Although, the circumstances surrounding his election are a bit sketchy, and it is often said he sneaked into office when the Republicans weren’t looking. Returns from Converse and Fremont Counties were delayed, and the State Canvassing Board was unable to certify the results. Taking matters in his own hands, Osborne took the oath of office on December 2, before a notary public and allegedly crawled along a ledge of the State House and in through the window into the Governor’s Office and refused to leave. The scene culminated with a wrestling match between Acting Governor Barber’s secretary and Osborne for the key to the office.

Governor Osborne wore the shoes made of George’s skin to his inaugural ball, which seems fitting since it appears he was as much a criminal as Big Nose.

Big Nose George was all but forgotten until May 11, 1950, when a construction crew excavating for a new building unearthed a whiskey barrel filled with bones. Included in the mass of bones was a skull with the top sawed off.

A citizen recalled Dr. Lillian Heath Nelson kept a skull cap. Nelson was still alive, but well into her eighties.  Her family was contacted and her husband brought the skull cap to the scene, it fit perfectly with the skull found in the barrel.  Subsequent DNA testing has occurred and verified the results.

Big Nose George Parrot's death mask and
shoes made from his chest skin

Today if you’ve got a hankerin’, the Carbon County Museum in Rawlins displays Big Nose George’s death mask, his skull and the infamous shoes.  Also on display, is a watch given by the County Commissioners to Rosa Rankin for stopping Big Nose’s escape. The shackles used on Big Nose during his hanging and the skull cap are on display at the Union Pacific Museum in Omaha, Nebraska. The medicine bag has never been found.

There ya go, folks! Not a pretty story, and frankly Cookie’s been yarkin’ in a pail since George was skinned and turned inta shoes! Truth be told, I’m lookin’ for my own pail! But if yer lookin’ for somethin’ a little different to see on the trail head on over to Rawlins and take a look at man-shoes!

See ya on the trail! Move over ya ol’ coot, and hand me a bucket!

About the Author

That I was blessed with an active imagination has never been under debate. As a child I loved making up stories and acting out adventures at my grandparents’ farm. According to my parents I even made up and acted out commercials for products in the grocery store as they shopped. But writing a book? No. Writing was for authors…magical and mystical people who could knit words together like a woolen scarf warming the insides. And many words…like 300 pages full of words. No, I was thrilled just to have my imagination stretched by the wonderful books created by others.

Then in college a friend introduced me to the Romance genre…an amazing friend indeed!  I was hooked on such a noble genre blending history and romance! I could scarcely take it in!  The summer of my freshman year, I tried (and I cannot express the word tried enough) to write a Western romance.  I can only be grateful lynching is no longer an option in Wyoming, and the characters were imaginary as I’m sure I would have been the guest of honor at a necktie party for that effort.

So, for the next few years I concentrated my efforts on getting a BA in History and a MA in Naval Warfare.  I got a job in the DC area working for a non-profit supporting the Navy’s museums. While there, I was inspired by a friend's writing journey to try again. After college and graduate school, writing 300 pages didn’t seem as daunting. When I sat down to write my thoughts instantly turned to the West. To the people and places that, while thousands of miles away, still shaped who I am and inspired my imagination. And I’ve never looked back. I can’t imagine a day without writing and wonder how I lived so long not putting fingers to keyboard and turning the people in my mind loose on the page.

After six years in the DC area, I had enough of the big city and returned home to Wyoming. Centered in the communities in the shadow of the Big Horn Mountains, I write stories based on the people and history of this area that holds my heart.  When I’m not roping, riding and rabblerousing with the cowboys and cowgirls who have taken up residence in my endless imagination, I have the honor of helping to preserve the history of Wyoming managing the artifact collection of a local museum.

I am truly blessed to be living in and writing about the Wild West!


This entry was posted in Old West History by Kirsten Lynn. Bookmark the permalink given in the introduction.


  1. Hi Kirsten,

    Wonderful post though a bit gruesome, and the doctor gives me the shivers. (I'm looking for my throw up bucket!)

    I loved the picture of Rawlins and the telegraph pole standing proudly. What a terrible way to die.

    Thanks for sharing Big Nose George with us!

  2. Hi Linda,

    Thanks for stopping by! I hear ya, Dr. Osborne gives me the creeps and comes off more as the villain in this story than the outlaw.

    This is one of those "truth is stranger than fiction" stories. Hope I didn't ruin your breakfast.


  3. What an interesting live Big Nose George had. Amazing how many times he got out of trouble. I have always thought that real accounts of events in history are better than any of us can make up. Thanks for sharing.

  4. Those old Wyoming folks were tougher than shoe leather. Yuk,yuk! Pun intended.

    Seriously, you tell a good real life yarn, Kirsten. Have you thought of using Big Nose in a novel? Or maybe you already have?

  5. Well, lord have mercy. What a tale. How could anyone miss Big Nose George?
    Gruesome ending for a killer and thief, but what those others did was just downright creepy. Ewww.
    I've never heard this story...almost wish I hadn't!!!!
    Excellent tale. Thanks for helping us out today.

  6. Hi Paisley,

    Yep, George certainly had an interesting life, but if not for the tale of his death I don't think he would have gotten as much coverage in the annals of Wyoming history.

    I agree, I don't think novelists will ever top history for an interesting story. :)

    Thanks for stopping by!


  7. Yes, Ma'am, Lyn, Wyomingites aren't known to be soft on crime.

    I have thought of using a George character in a book, but it would probably be less him and more of the gruesome doctor.

    Glad you could stop by, thanks!


  8. LOL, Celia, I kind of felt the same way when I first heard it. I was in the old museum in Jackson Hole and not really paying attention to the tape until it got to the "man made shoes" comment.

    Glad you found it interesting, if not nauseating. :)


  9. Great story proving again, truth is stranger than fiction.

  10. I know, Gem, I've thought of some crazy things for my books and read some in others, but George's story tops most (maybe not Stephen King, but most).

    Thanks for stopping by and commenting!


  11. Gee whiz, Rustler! No wonder you were telling me Wyoming doesn't need any more Texas outlaws wandering up that way. Our outlaws look like church ladies compared to Wyoming's upstanding citizens! :-D

    My Stetson's off to ya, gal. I don't know how anyone's ever gonna top this post for pure fascinating gruesomeness. If you're finished with that bucket.... ;-)

  12. See, Tex, and you thought I was being nasty about Texas and all I was trying to do is keep your outlaws safe from the health care system here in Wyoming!

    **Takes a bow** Thank you very much, this story is hard to beat for shear "Ew factor."

    And Cookie's usin' the bucket at the moment. The idjit read the story again.


  13. Great article, Kirsten!!
    I love learning about the people back then, even if they're a little weird. :)

    I enjoyed this post very much.

  14. What a story! I had never heard this before, and ICK...ears torn off, skull cap taken, skinned...and strangled to death. Very gruesome, and I have to say that Dr. Osborne sounds more like a mad scientist than a doctor. BUT HOW INTERESTING!!! LOLLOL Thanks so much for this great post, Kirsten, and we're glad to have you hear at Sweethearts!

  15. Yeah, and we're glad to have you "here" as well...duh...I must have been thinking about poor George's ears...

  16. Ohmagosh, like something one of Hitler's men would do. Ick!
    Sorry I'm so late getting here.


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